Recently, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the Ministry of Ecological Situations, and the Ministry of Natural Capital and other ten ministries and commissions issued a "Several Views on Accelerating the Green Growth of the Marine Aquaculture Industry", which has stimulated widespread concern among all sectors of society.
"This is the first leadership document approved by the State Council specifically for the aquaculture industry since the founding of the People's Republic of China." On February 15, at the State Council's announcement meeting, the Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Kang Zhen said that the document was The outline document leading the green growth of China's marine aquaculture industry at present and in the following era is of great significance for the transformation and upgrading of the aquaculture industry and the green and high-quality growth. "
The latest data show that since the reform and opening up, under the guidance of the "growth-oriented" growth policy, China's marine aquaculture industry has achieved great results in growth: marine aquaculture production accounts for more than 60% of the world's marine aquaculture production, accounting for about More than 78% of the total product output is a world-renowned country for aquaculture. At the same time, as a country with relatively scarce water capital, under the weight of the environment, it is accelerating the construction of the spatial format, property structure, and production methods of the green growth of the aquaculture industry, and promoting China's change from a country of aquaculture industry to a strong country of aquaculture industry. The significance is big and urgent.
Changes in the aquaculture industry
"Two out of every three fish in the world are raised in China." As the world's only important fishery country in which the total amount of cultured marine products exceeds the total catch, China's total marine aquaculture production in 2018 exceeded 50 million tons, accounting for domestic Nearly 80% of the total output of seafood is at the mercy of it.
Marine products have always originated in the category of two years of fishing and breeding. According to the place of production, they can be divided into two categories of seafood and fresh seafood. With the rapid increase of raw teeth and the improvement of career prerequisites, the demand for seafood has increased rapidly, and the problem of overfishing of marine and river capital has become increasingly prominent. In addition, the problem of pollution has become more serious, and the supply of fishing seafood has continued to decline, and it cannot be satisfied. Market demand has also made the marine aquaculture industry grow rapidly. It is also the rapid growth of the domestic marine aquaculture industry in recent years. In order to solve the "difficult to eat fish" in urban and rural areas, ensure the supply of high-quality animal eggs, reduce the application intensity of aquatic biomass sources in natural waters, and promote the prosperity of fishery properties and the ease of fishing. Rich career, etc., have made outstanding contributions.
However, at the same time as the rapid growth of property, the divergent levels of the local aquaculture industry are facing some growth bottlenecks: various types of pollution around the aquaculture waters have severely damaged the ecological situation of the aquaculture waters; the economic and social growth and the land for cultivation have been inexhaustibly expanded, making the aquaculture The water space is severely squeezed, and the legitimate rights and interests of fisheries are approached. The aquaculture structure is not fair. For example, if the offshore aquaculture cages in the departmental areas are densely crowded, the culture cages in the reservoirs and lakes are too dense, and Some fair space (such as deep sea, paddy fields, low-lying saline-alkali land, etc.) have not been developed or the application is inadequate; some outdated farming methods need to be changed urgently, and the scope, organization and branding of property are relatively low. .
This makes the society have an indecent point that the aquaculture has a negative impact on the situation. Some places have shown errors when dealing with the relationship between the growth of the aquaculture industry and the maintenance of the situation. It is strictly forbidden to aquaculture.
In this regard, the relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs understands that not all marine aquaculture species and cultivation methods in cities have negatively affected the aquatic ecological situation. It is necessary to scientifically define the sanctuary area, decisively prevent the "one size fits all" of the entire region, the whole river basin and the whole sea area, and blindly expand the scope of the sanitation.
According to the introduction, starting from 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has initiated a new round of preparation of tidal flats for aquaculture waters, requesting the fair structure of marine aquaculture production in various places, customizing breeding zones, restricted breeding zones and promising breeding zones in accordance with regulations. At present, the planning of major producing counties has been basically completed.
Some experts also pointed out that the high-density, divergent rationale of bait-type farming methods will definitely affect the situation, but scientific and fair farming methods will have a certain effect on the purification and restoration of aquatic conditions.
It is worth noting that the views at the center level have been clear. The concept of green growth is permeated in the entire process of aquaculture production, and the ecological and healthy aquaculture system is pursued. The ecological function of the aquaculture industry in the management of mountains, rivers, forests, lakes and grasses is to be demonstrated. To grow high-quality, characteristic, green and ecological seafood.
At the same time, fully implement the market's resolutions in the capital equipment and equipment, optimize the capital equipment and equipment, improve the yield of all factors, promote the comprehensive benefits of green farming, and enhance the systemic innovation of the green growth system of the marine aquaculture industry, perfect production and management System, promote scientific discussions, result transformation, demonstration promotion, talent training synergistic growth and the integration of one, two and three properties. It will also perfect the laws and regulations on green growth of the aquaculture industry, protect the legitimate rights and interests of aquaculture and fishery, and the fair and orderly market situation.
Multi-faceted status drives industry change
According to some materials, the total output value of China's fisheries now spans one trillion yuan. Among them, the production of farmed seafood is growing faster than that of fishing, and farming has been the dominant force in increasing the production of seafood.
With the use of marine aquaculture, China ’s fishery “going out” is also earlier. In 1985, it took the lead to go abroad and go global, and through fishery cooperation with some growing China, it provided local seafood and employment booths. Data show that in 2018 China's seafood exports have reached 23.3 billion U.S. dollars, exports and exports have both increased, and imports and imports have also increased.
However, due to the constraints of water capital, stricter environmental protection policies, and the improvement of the concentration of aquaculture property chains, especially the upgrading of costs, the marine aquaculture industry is experiencing some in-depth changes, and the industry is inevitable.
In China, with the progress of people's spending, the demand for special seafood with high nutrient value is inexhaustible, which has also helped to promote the rapid growth of the marine aquaculture industry. In the past, the domestic consumption of marine products such as herring, grass carp, bonito, and bonito four master fish has always been the main issue in China, and fisheries production has also focused on solving the demand for popular seafood.
With the rapid increase of the total amount of seafood in China, the problem of "difficult to eat fish" has been effectively alleviated, and the supply of seafood is facing a new "quality and health demand" problem. The market has a high value for nutrients, tender meat and taste. The healthy and more diversified variety of healthy food, the demand for special seafood products, will continue to rise. Such as salmon, scallops, lobsters, sea cucumbers and other sea and sea products, yellow croaker, Chinese sturgeon and other special sea products are increasingly being received by the market, whether the aquaculture process is ecologically healthy, whether the food safety level meets the standards, etc. I'm a hot topic.
An expert from the China Seafood Unblocking and Processing Association introduced that aquatic aquaculture refers to the application of healthy and ecological methods (such as clean water fish farming, food fish farming, and grass planting) by imitating the effects of ecological systems and natural ecosystems. (Fish farming) to breed marine products to meet the psychological needs of people seeking green food to eat "earth" goods, so as to realize the true identity of economic, social and ecological benefits.
At present, many regions in China have vigorously promoted the structural transformation of the supply side of the marine aquaculture industry, and have achieved some achievements: comprehensive cultivation of rice and fisheries, flowering in all rounds, engineered round water culture in ponds, a three-dimensional aquaculture mode of fish and vegetable symbiosis, three-dimensional ecological aquaculture, Demonstration and promotion of advanced predecessor skills such as recirculating aquaculture in the workshop are inexhaustible. The world's largest full-submersible large-scale net cage "Dark Blue No. 1" was successfully built and launched in Shandong, and began to farm salmon. Progress is smooth now. Qiandao Lake, Chagan Lake and other aquaculture ecological fisheries are well-known throughout the country. At the same time, there are a number of well-known fishery brands such as Qianjiang crayfish, Yangcheng Lake crabs, and Ningde yellow croakers.
In Xinyang, crab farming and shrimp farming as ecological breeding models have been promoted locally, which has not only become a new way for local farmers to get rid of poverty, but also the seafood and rice produced are well received by consumers, with good prices, high output value, and competition. The advantage is clear: the rice produced is certified by organic products and is more than three times the price of popular rice in the market. The ecological crabs and crayfish that are farmed are also expensive and demand exceeds supply.
In Shandong Province, a coastal province, in recent years, the maintenance of marine pastures mainly based on the "multiplication and release of artificial fish reef and algae field transplantation of intelligent net cages" has been carried out to promote the change of marine fisheries from "hunting and catching" to "agricultural and pastoral". The marine pasture has restored the marine ecosystem, and the increase in fishery capital is very obvious.
"Before 2010, no fish could be caught on this basis. Later, the end-of-day marine pasture planned to throw reefs, blockade for conservation, and the fish species gradually became richer, with more than 40 types at most." Qingdao Luhaifeng Ocean Ranch Ren Wang Xiangang said that with the vigorous efforts of the Chinese authorities to promote energy conservation and environmental protection, traditional fisheries have little efficiency, the market has shrunk, the fishing industry has increased their incomes, and they have also polluted agricultural conditions. Therefore, the transformation of fisheries is inevitable.
Nowadays, under the concept of green farming, the scale-up growth of farmers and the advancement of the factory-based farming model of their predecessors are rapidly spreading and have become the industry's resonance.
"Internet aquaculture" becomes a new trend
In fact, in the area of aquaculture, the impact of the Internet is also ubiquitous. From breeding, production, process management and handling to the final sale of products, it has deeply penetrated all aspects of marine aquaculture, and this integration has grown, greatly improving the effectiveness and degree of marine aquaculture.
For a long period of time, domestic seafood products are mainly fresh products. In the early days when China's logistics system was not perfect, the sales radius of seafood was limited by a large amount, and important spending areas around concentrated seafood production areas.
With the endless support and perfection of China's logistics system, especially the cold chain logistics system, the growth of domestic seafood from coastal areas to inland areas is becoming more obvious. With the “Internet” seafood companies' inexhaustible development of domestic sales channels and sales collection, China ’s domestic market for seafood sales will show great potential.
Taking fresh e-commerce as an example, the sales of fresh e-commerce in 2013 were only 12.67 billion yuan, reaching 139.13 billion yuan in 2017, with an average annual increase of 200%. Among them, the seafood sold by fresh e-commerce in 2017 It accounts for nearly 10%. Through the "Internet", seafood has become an indispensable content on the table.
With the increasing use and promotion of "Internet" skills in the aquaculture industry, the intelligent breeding system based on the Internet of Things, active control and artificial intelligence skills has realized timely online monitoring and precise regulation of the breeding process. The combination of market selling (selling fish online) has promoted the informatization, initiative, and intelligence of the farm, which has reduced the production cost for factory-based and range-based farming, improved labor productivity, and market development. Selling rate, capital application rate, and governance effectiveness have also gained the upper hand for the safety of seafood quality and market competitiveness.
The expert team of the Chinese Academy of Marine Sciences suggested that the "Internet information skills" should be applied, the production structure should be adjusted, and the production factors such as breeding waters, labor, capital, technology, and equipment should be led to the deep and deep aquaculture, integrated rice and fish breeding, and recirculating aquaculture. In other areas, improving the yield of all elements of aquaculture, further promoting the growth of aquaculture, and providing consumers with healthy, high-quality seafood may become one of the trends in aquaculture.