In recent years, the parasite problem has become more and more harmful in the aquaculture process, which has brought large economic losses to aquaculture. Here is a brief introduction of common pesticides in the market aquatic products:
First, copper sulfate
Copper sulfate, also known as blue alum, alum, or stone bile, is a dark blue triclinic crystal or blue transparent crystalline particles or crystalline powder. Easy to weather in the air, the aqueous solution is acidic. When it comes into contact with water, it releases copper ions. Copper ions can combine with proteins to form complexes, which can denature and precipitate proteins. Therefore, it can deactivate the enzymes in the parasite and kill the parasite.
Copper sulfate and ferrous sulfate are usually used at a ratio of 5: 2 on the market. Ferrous sulfate has an astringent effect and plays an auxiliary insecticidal role. Low-concentration copper sulfate solution can have astringent effects on tissues, and high-concentration has irritating and corrosive effects. However, the insecticidal ability of copper sulfate is related to various factors in the water, such as its efficacy is directly proportional to water temperature, and inversely proportional to the content of organic and suspended matter, salinity, and pH in water.
Copper sulfate is mainly used to prevent and cure parasitic diseases caused by Cryptosporidium, Trichinella, Tuberculosis, and Ciliates such as grass carp, catfish, catfish, catfish, and eel. Care should be taken during use: do not use it for a long time, so as not to affect the growth of beneficial algae; do not use it with alkaline substances such as quicklime; use it carefully with fish such as tadpoles, mandarin ducks, etc .; reduce the dosage appropriately in lean ponds, fry ponds, and low hardness water; Aeration.
Precautions for use: (1) This product is more toxic to fish and other aquatic animals (especially to fry). Generally the amount of freshwater fish is lower than that of marine fish, and its therapeutic effective concentration range is small. Therefore, the water volume of the pond should be carefully measured And accurately calculate the dosage; (2) When dissolving this product, do not use metal containers, the water in which the drug is dissolved, and the temperature should not exceed 60 ° C to prevent failure. And should choose a sunny morning (the fish does not float head) medication, and pay attention to aeration and aeration to prevent dead algae from consuming dissolved oxygen and affecting water quality.
Zinc sulfate heptahydrate
Zinc sulfate heptahydrate is a colorless and transparent prismatic or fine needle-like crystal or granular crystalline powder. It is odorless, astringent, and weathering. It will precipitate when it meets sodium carbonate, sodium benzoate, and protein. It is also a heavy metal salt insecticide, which is very easy to dissolve in water. The zinc ions generated in the water are combined with the protein of the worm somatic cells to form a protein salt, which causes the precipitate to kill the worm.
Commonly used in the market is zinc sulfate heptahydrate with a content of 60%, which is generally diluted with zeolite powder as a carrier. The normal spraying concentration is 0.3-0.75 mg / L. It is used to treat parasitic diseases of mitten crab, Chinese sturgeon and shrimp caused by ciliates.
Precautions for use: (1) Prohibition of use of eel; (2) Caution for shrimp and crab seedling and hulling periods; (3) Attention to oxygen in high temperature and low pressure climate.
Trichlorfon, alias Ma Sato. It is white crystal with aromatic flavor. After hydrolysis, a cholinesterase inhibitor can be produced. In combination with the cholinesterase of the insect body, the activity of cholinesterase is inhibited and the ability of hydrolysis to destroy acetylcholine is lost. Due to the large accumulation of acetylcholine, neurological dysfunction of insects, crustaceans, worms, etc., excites first, and then paralyzes until death by poisoning.
Commonly used to kill or expel parasitic worms such as Chinese sturgeon, anchorhead sturgeon, fish sturgeon, third-generation worm, ringworm, nematode, fluke and other parasites parasitic on farmed fish.
Refined trichlorfon powders in the market with 20% and 30% specifications are generally diluted with anhydrous sodium sulfate as the carrier.
Precautions for use: (1) Shrimp, crab, sturgeon, freshwater white mullet, scaleless fish, marine fish are extremely sensitive to it, and should be paid attention to during use; (2) This product is acidic and has a corrosive effect on metals, Do not use metal containers when preparing and spilling; (3) Do not use with other alkaline drugs except in combination with facial alkali; (4) Do not use this product under hypoxia in water; (5) Water quality is thinner and transparency is higher than At 30 cm, use a low dose; seed dose is halved.
Phoxim is a light yellow oily liquid. It is a synthetic organophosphorus pesticide. It is an irreversible inhibitor of serine proteases. It can specifically bind to serine in the active center of the enzyme by covalent bonds, thereby inhibiting cholinesterase. A large amount of acetylcholine accumulates in the body, causing nerves to be abnormally excited, causing tremors, spasms, paralysis and death of the pest. It can be used to control parasitic diseases such as fish ringworms, third-generation worms, anchorhead sturgeon, Chinese sturgeon, and fish sturgeon. The commonly used contents in the market are phoxim solutions of two specifications: 100 ml: 20 g and 100 ml: 40 g.
Precautions for use: (1) It is strictly forbidden to use before and after hypoxia and floating head; (2) Do not mix with alkaline drugs such as quicklime or strong oxidizing drugs such as chlorine dioxide, potassium permanganate, trichloroisocyanuric acid; (3) ) Fish fry below 6 cm should be used with caution; (4) If poisoning occurs at high doses, atropine or cholinesterase complex can be used for rescue; (5) prohibited in shrimp and crab breeding; (6) use After a long time aeration.
Toluimiazole is a white, off-white or slightly yellow powder, and is odorless. Can cause the intestinal cytoplasmic microtubules of the worm body to disappear, can irreversibly inhibit the use of glucose by the worm body, lead to the depletion of worm body glycogen and adenosine triphosphate, hinder the growth and development of the worm body, or can prolong the retention of hydrolase in the cell, thereby Accelerate the dissolution of the cortex. This product is a high-efficiency, broad-spectrum, low-toxic anthelmintic drug, which can treat monozoan parasitic diseases such as fish ringworm disease, pseudoringworm disease, and third-generation worm disease. Commonly used in the market is a 10% tolumazole solution.
Precautions for use: (1) Ictalurus punctatus and bigmouth catfish are prohibited, and special breeds should be used with caution; (2) Prohibited in the cultivation of shellfish, snails and other water bodies; (3) aeration in time after use; (4) about 72 The effect is obvious only after hours. Try to keep the ponds for 5 days without changing water.
Albendazole is a thiabazole drug. It is a white to yellow powder, which can not only kill a variety of nematodes, but also has a strong repellent effect on some flukes and tapeworms. The mechanism of action is to inhibit the fumaric acid reductase of the worm body, causing the energy source of the worm body to be blocked and the metabolism of the worm body to be impaired. This product is easily absorbed by the digestive tract. Its metabolites are albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone. It is completely excreted and is a highly effective and low-toxic anthelmintic. It is mainly used to treat parasitic diseases caused by trematodes (gills), Benedenia trematodes and freshwater farmed fish caused by ringworms, third-generation worms, and myxospores. Albendazole powder of 6% specification is commonly used in the market.
Precautions for use: (1) This product is embryotoxic and teratogenic, so aquatic animals in the breeding period should not be used; (2) If the dose does not reach the effective dose, it can only expel insects in some fish bodies body.
Avermectin is a white or slightly yellow crystalline powder or a pale yellow solution. It is a new broad-spectrum, highly effective, low-toxic antibiotic antiparasitic drug. It has a repellent effect on pests, which is to increase the inhibitory transmitter r- Release of GABA. And open the Cl- channel controlled by glutamic acid, enhance the permeability of the nerve membrane to Cl-, thereby blocking the transmission of neural signals, and eventually paralyzing the nerves, causing muscle cells to lose their ability to contract, leading to the death of the worm. Commonly used on the market is a 0.5% avermectin solution. Monoculture and polyculture ponds for killing various fish, shrimp, crab, shellfish, etc., anchorhead maggots, Chinese sturgeon, fish maggots, nematodes, ringworms, third-generation worms, etc. Parasites and aquatic insects such as pine algae and leeches.
Precautions for use: (1) It is strictly forbidden to use before and after anoxic, floating head; (2) Add oxygen in time for a long time after use; (3) Disable when the water quality deteriorates, and disable after flooding; (4) Do not mix with disinfectant; ( 5) Use tidal flat cultured shellfish with caution; (6) Reduce seed use by half.
Cypermethrin is a yellow-brown to dark reddish brown viscous liquid. It is a pyrethroid insecticide with contact and stomach toxicity. The insecticidal spectrum is wide, the effect is fast, it is stable to light and heat, and it has a killing effect on the eggs of certain pests. This medicine has a good effect in controlling pests that are resistant to organic phosphorus. Generally used on the market is 4.5% cypermethrin EC. Used to control fish such as herring, grass carp, silver carp, silver carp, silver carp, silver carp, yellow carp, yellow carp, silver carp, silver carp, eel, maggot, etc. parasitic disease.
Precautions for use: (1) Do not use medicine in the state of hypoxia in the water body; (2) Do not use this product 24 hours after using disinfectant; (3) Shrimp and crab are sensitive to this product, and it is forbidden to use in monoculture or polyculture shrimp and crab water This product; (4) It is strictly forbidden to mix with alkaline or strong oxidizing drugs; (5) This product is prone to drug resistance. Do not increase the dosage and the number of applications at random. Pay attention to the alternate use with non-permethrin pesticides.