Food is the basic substance that human beings depend on. In addition to high-protein, rich highly unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and trace elements, aquatic foods also contain a large number of taste substances, such as carnosine, goose carnosine, and oxidized Trimethylamine, betaine, free amino acids, inosinic acid, taurine, succinic acid, etc., constitute the unique flavor of aquatic foods, and are well loved by consumers. In addition, aquatic products are also one of the most important animal protein sources for humans.
I. Status of China's Aquatic Product Processing Industry
China is a big fishery country. In recent years, the total output of aquatic products has been around 45 million tons. Aquatic product processing is an important way to improve the comprehensive benefits and added value of aquatic products. Deep processing of high-quality aquatic products can effectively improve product quality, and deep processing of low-value aquatic products can both increase nutrition sources and improve comprehensive utilization. China's food structural reform and development outline clearly states that the proportion of aquatic products in animal food should be higher than 20%. To meet the requirements set out in the "Outline of China's Food Structure Reform and Development in the 1990s", while improving the quality and safety of traditional products, the aquatic product processing industry is also facing tasks such as increasing the variety of aquatic products and further processing.
China's aquatic products processing has formed a large number of products including surimi products processing, laver processing, roasted eel processing, seasoning products, canning and flexible packaging processing, dry product processing, frozen product processing and fresh-keeping aquatic product processing, fish meal, seaweed food, seaweed Modern aquatic product processing enterprises including chemicals, seafood health foods, marine drugs, fish skin tanning and handicrafts have become the main driving force and link for the rapid development of China's aquatic industry and its integration with international markets. With the rapid progress of China's fishery industry, the aquatic product processing industry has also made breakthrough progress.
According to statistics, the total output of aquatic products in China in 2004 was 49.018 million tons, an increase of 1.957 million tons compared with 2003. An increase of 4.2%. Among them, marine fishing output was 14.511 million tons. Excluding offshore fishing output. Negative growth was 0.8%; marine aquaculture output was 13.16 million tons, an increase of 634,000 tons and 5.1% over 2003; freshwater fishing output was 2.42 million tons, compared with 2003 Annual reduction of 42 thousand tons, a negative growth of 1.7%; freshwater aquaculture production of 18.92 million tons, an increase of 11.77 million tons, an increase of 6.64%.
Among the total production, the fishing output was 16.931 million tons, accounting for 34.5% of the total output; the aquaculture output was 32.087 million tons, accounting for 65.5% of the total production. The output of seafood was 27.768 million tons, accounting for 56.5% of the total output; the output of freshwater products was 21.34 million tons, accounting for 43.5% of the total output. The national per capita possession of aquatic products was 38.7 kg, an increase of 1.5 kg over 2003. Based on 2004 prices, the total fishery output value of the whole society was 670.24 billion yuan, of which the fishery output value was 37.962 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 16% and 14.2% respectively.
Due to the pull of the international aquatic product consumer market, China's aquatic product processing exports have developed rapidly, and the number of processing enterprises has increased rapidly. In 2004, it reached 8,745, an increase of 458 over 2003. The annual processing capacity is 14.27 million tons, an increase of 9.3% over 2003; the total processed aquatic products is 10.32 million tons, an increase of 13.2% over 2003. Frozen aquatic products and frozen processed aquatic products are still the most important components, with an output of 59.93 million tons, accounting for 51.4% of the total processing. Algae processed products 447,000 tons, surimi products and dry pickled products 170,400 tons, can products 144,000 tons, animal protein feed 16.83 million tons, fish oil products 233,000 tons, other aquatic products Processed products 773,000 tons.
In terms of raw materials, the amount of aquatic products used for processing was 13.82 million tons, accounting for 28% of the total output of aquatic products. China has a variety of aquatic product processing methods and a long history, which can be divided into two types: traditional and modern. Traditional processing mainly refers to pickled, dried, smoked, fermented and natural fermentation. With the development of China ’s national economy and the advancement of science and technology, as well as the introduction of foreign advanced production equipment and processing technologies, China ’s aquatic product processing technologies, methods and means have undergone fundamental changes. The technological content and economic value-added of processed aquatic products Both have been greatly improved. It is obvious that the effective market demand for aquatic processed products will continue to expand with the improvement of residents' living standards and the acceleration of living rhythms.
2. Development Trend of Aquatic Products Processing in China
Today in the 21st century, the process of global economic integration is accelerating, international trade and cooperation are becoming more extensive, and technological innovation is changing with each passing day. People have put forward higher requirements in production and life. Nutrition, health care, convenience, deliciousness, and freshness have become dietary fashion.
The aquatic product processing trends are summarized in the following 5 directions
One is convenience
First, some fishery products are used to process fish paste, and then fish paste is used to produce a variety of products such as fish cakes, dried fish, fish steaks or fish sausages for consumers to eat directly. It is nutritious and storage-resistant, and easy to carry.
Second is simulation
Fish paste can be made into color, aroma, taste and shape
Crab, shrimp, shellfish, shark fin, caviar and other simulated products. This simulated product can be a featured aquatic convenience food or side dish in home or restaurant dining.
The third is health
Taking aquatic products as raw materials, according to a certain formula, with appropriate medicines, the taste of aquatic products, and taking the properties of medicines, various aquatic health foods are made. Because of its low cholesterol content, it can become a true “medicinal diet”.
Fourth is beauty
Most caviar is not only delicious and nutritious, but also rich in elements and minerals such as protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron and lecithin. It is an internationally popular beauty and health food. The deep processing of caviar is promising.
Fifth, live segmentation
Aquatic products can maintain their original fresh taste after scientific segmentation. Such as freshwater fish, in addition to promoting local, live and fresh sales, it can also be divided into small frozen packages, so that the storage time is long, it can meet the consumer needs of different consumers, and it is convenient to buy.
After joining the World Trade Organization (WTO), China's aquatic processing enterprises should use high-tech to carry out in-depth development of aquatic products, make full use of aquatic resources, meet people's needs, rely on technology and markets, increase product technology content, and accelerate international The process of integration has developed diversified aquatic foods. The development of deep processing is the development direction of China's aquatic product processing industry. We can rely on technological innovation to improve the competitiveness of our products. Based on the existing processing technology, aquatic products must adopt new methods, new processes and new technologies to carry out technological innovation. We must focus on developing advanced technologies with high technological content and high added value. Deep-processed products, strengthen research and development of aquatic medical health food, functional food, convenience food and development and utilization of aquatic waste.
The Ministry of Agriculture has formulated the "National Major Agricultural Product Processing Industry Development Plan", which clarified that the future production and processing of aquatic products should focus on the intensive processing and comprehensive utilization of bulk products, low-value products and waste, optimize the product structure, and promote freshwater fish and shellfish. The establishment of fish, algae processing industry system. In addition, it is necessary to cultivate and guide a group of leading aquatic product processing enterprises to accelerate the technological transformation, promote the development of marketable products, and continuously increase the market share at home and abroad.
In the processing of seawater products, we must focus on research and development of new fishing objects, which are processed into high-quality fish meal, fish fillets, surimi, simulated foods and condiments. The processing of marine low-value aquatic products should be based on increasing the development of traditional aquatic food, and develop a large number of refined edible fresh fish paste, and then use fresh fish paste as raw materials to produce flavored fish balls, fish rolls, fish cakes, fish sausages, and fish. A variety of convenience foods such as snacks, microwave foods, and high-end artificial crab meat, shellfish, shark fin, caviar and other synthetic aquatic foods with excellent color and fragrance, improve the comprehensive utilization rate and added value of low-value products.
In terms of freshwater fish processing, we must follow the principle of "one fresh, two live, and three processes" to sell live and fresh products. Under the conditions of chilled and frozen, gradually develop segmentation, slice processing, and improve distribution. , Do a good job in the development of surimi, fish fillets and new salt dried products, smoked products, seasoning products, comprehensive processing, development and utilization of inedible parts to increase added value.
In terms of shellfish processing, we mainly do a good job in keeping alive, purification and disinfection, and carry out diversified development, such as shellfish condiments, dry products, smoked products and flexible packaging canned foods, as well as human and animal calcium source foods.